Theories of Motivation
Motivation theory rests on the work of Maslow and Herzberg.
• Maslow’s theory consists of a five-level pyramid made up of physiologic or basic survival; physical and mental safety; sense of belonging; accomplishment, creativity and growth; and self-actualisation.
• Herzberg suggests that there are two groups of factors: hygiene (which satisfy) and motivation.
• Latham (Latham & Pinder, 2005) reviewed the literature published between 1993 and 2003 and concluded that goal-setting, social cognitive and organisational justice theories were the three most important approaches to work motivation to appear in the last 30 years.
• Gagné (The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory, 2014) discusses the idea of self-motivation theory – the idea that motivation that is based on meaning and interest is superior to motivation that is based on pressure and rewards and that work environments that make workers feel competent, autonomous, and related to others foster the right type of motivation, goals and work values.